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The difference between brushed motor and brushless motor


The difference between brushed motor and brushless motor speed regulation

In fact, the control of the two motors is voltage regulation, but because the brushless DC adopts electronic commutation, it can only be realized with digital control, while the brushed DC is commutated through carbon brushes, using thyristors, etc. Traditional analog circuits can be controlled, which is relatively simple.

1. The speed regulation process of the brushed motor is to adjust the voltage of the motor power supply. The adjusted voltage and current are converted through the commutator and the brush to change the strength of the magnetic field generated by the electrodes to achieve the purpose of changing the rotational speed. This process is called variable speed regulation.

2. The speed regulation process of the brushless motor is that the voltage of the power supply of the motor remains unchanged, the control signal of the ESC is changed, and the switching rate of the high-power MOS tube is changed by the microprocessor to realize the change of the speed. This process is called variable frequency speed regulation.

The difference between the performance of brushed motor and brushless motor

1. The brushed motor has a simple structure and mature technology for a long time

As early as the 19th century, when the motor was born, the practical motor produced was the brushless form, that is, the AC squirrel-cage asynchronous motor, which has been widely used after the generation of alternating current. However, asynchronous motors have many insurmountable defects, so that the development of motor technology is slow. In particular, the brushless DC motor has been unable to be put into commercial operation. With the rapid development of electronic technology, it has not been put into commercial operation until recent years, and it still belongs to the category of AC motor in essence.

Soon after the brushless motor was born, people invented the DC brush motor. Due to the simple structure of the DC brush motor, the production and processing are easy, the maintenance is convenient, and the control is easy; the DC motor also has fast response, large starting torque, and can provide rated torque from zero speed to rated speed. has been widely used.

2. The DC brush motor has fast response speed and large starting torque

The DC brush motor has fast starting response speed, large starting torque, stable speed change, almost no vibration from zero to maximum speed, and can drive a larger load when starting. The brushless motor has a large starting resistance (inductive reactance), so the power factor is small, the starting torque is relatively small, there is a humming sound when starting, accompanied by strong vibration, and the driving load is small when starting.

3. The DC brush motor runs smoothly, with good starting and braking effects

The brushed motor adjusts the speed through voltage regulation, so the starting and braking are stable, and the constant speed operation is also stable. The brushless motor is usually controlled by digital frequency conversion, which first converts AC into DC, then DC into AC, and controls the speed through frequency changes, so the brushless motor does not run smoothly during starting and braking, and the vibration is large, only when the speed is constant. will be stable.

4. High control precision of DC brush motor

The DC brush motor is usually used together with the reduction box and the decoder, so that the output power of the motor is larger, and the control accuracy is higher. The control accuracy can reach 0.01 mm, and the moving parts can be stopped almost anywhere. All precision machine tools are controlled by DC motors for precision. Because the brushless motor is not stable when starting and braking, the moving parts will stop to different positions each time, and the positioning pins or limiters must be used to stop at the desired position.

5. The use cost of the DC brush motor is low and the maintenance is convenient

Due to the simple structure, low production cost, many manufacturers, and relatively mature technology, DC brushed motors are widely used, such as factories, processing machine tools, precision instruments, etc. If the motor fails, just replace the carbon brush. Carbon brushes only cost a few dollars, which is very cheap. The brushless motor technology is immature, the price is high, and the application range is limited. It should be mainly used on constant-speed equipment, such as inverter air conditioners, refrigerators, etc., and the brushless motor can only be replaced if it is damaged.

6, no brush, low interference

The brushless motor has removed the brush, and the most direct change is that there is no electric spark generated when the brushed motor is running, which greatly reduces the interference of the electric spark to the remote control radio equipment.

7. Low noise and smooth operation

The brushless motor has no brushes, the friction force is greatly reduced during operation, the operation is smooth, and the noise will be much lower. This advantage is a huge support for the stability of the model.

8. Long life and low maintenance cost

Without the brush, the wear of the brushless motor is mainly on the bearing. From a mechanical point of view, the brushless motor is almost a maintenance-free motor. When necessary, only some dust removal maintenance can be done.

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